For secondary School

Mr. Rajabu Athuman



The first person to introduce word geography was a Greek philosophy called Eratothenese (276-194). Hence word geography originated from two Greek words such as Geo means Earth and grapho means To draw or to describe. In short, geography means to describe the earth. Ore is a description of the earth. Therefore the combination of these two words we get Geography.

What is Geography?
Geography is the study of distribution and interrelationship of phenomena in relation to the earth's surface. Or is the scientific study of the earth as a home for humankind. Is a study of human and relation to his or her environment. Is a scientific study of spatial distribution or variation of any physical or natural.

BRANCHES OF GEOGRAPHY As we have discussed the geography deals with the distribution of geographical phenomena. Now let divide this great subject into branches:-
1. Physical geography
2. Human and economic geography
3. Practical geography

Physical Geography
This branches of geography deal with the study of landforms, their formation, processes and distribution. In short physical geography examine natural processes.

Examples of landforms.

Human and economic geography
This branch examines economic, social and behaviour processes. In other words, human and economic geography deals with human activities.

Examples of human activities

Practical geography
This branch of geography deals with a field study of research, statistic, map work and photography interpretation.

Why do we study geography?
1. We study geography to understand the changes which have taken place over time.
2. To understand geographical phenomena which vary over space.
3. To understand employment opportunities found withing knowledge of geography
4. to gain knowledge about our environment
5. geography helps us to know how different countries are relating to each other.
6. geography helps us to be aware of the resources available in our environment.
7. knowledge of geography helps us to discover environmental problems and how to combat those problems.

Geography in our real life.
In our day to day real life, we use geography in many occasions. We use geography in agricultural activities. Crop rotation, irrigation, soil erosion control, the use of manure and fertilizers and other ways of farming. When choosing a good area for agriculture or certain crops according to climate and soil, we use geography to do that.

When we want to know about the climate and weather of an area we need to use knowledge of geography. In interpreting geographical phenomena and their distribution we use geography. In weather forecasting and warning about the coming of natural hazard like a flood, we use geography.

Even when we build our house we use geography, we need a knowledge of geography to determine a good spot for building a house.

In planing cities also a knowledge of geography plays great roles.

Wen we want to know the distribution of landforms and natural features we use knowledge of geography. In geography, we study the reasons for the formation of different landforms in a certain area. Why the mount Kilimanjaro is located there and not in other places. The answer to this question needs knowledge of geography.

1. word "geography" is a combination of ___ Greek's words.
2. A word "geo" means ____ while a word "grapho" means ____
3. Mention three branches of geography _______, ___________ and _______
4. What is geography?. Geography is
5. Why do we study geography?

Solar means sun, while a system means a combination of different part working together as a whole. In short solar system is a system of sun and object that surround it. Our solar system formed 4.5 billion years ago from the cloud of gas called nebular. Sun is at the centre of the solar system. Our solar system comprises sun, planets, satellite, comet, asteroid and meteorites.

What is a solar system
Solar System, the Sun and everything that orbits the Sun, including the planets and their satellites; the dwarf planets, asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, and comets; and interplanetary dust and gas
(Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation.)

Is an arrangement of heavenly (celestial) bodies that orbit the sun.
Is a system of the sun and objects that surround it
Is gravitational bound system of the sun and objects that around it.
Is an arrangement of the objects that are revolving the sun and they are been affected by its gravity.

The time by which these objects are revolving the sun depends on their distance from the sun. For example, mercy uses a few days to complete its revolution while Pluto uses a lot of time than any planet. This is because Pluto is very far from the sun.

All these objects are revolving the sun in their path called orbit. This orbit is not completely round like a ball. Orbit has a shape called Ecliptic shape. Most of these objects are rotating on their axis at a certain angle. All these objects are held by the sun's gravity.

Members of the solar system.
There are many members of solar system, but in this article we are going to see only the following members:-
1. Planets
2. Asteroids
3. Comets
4. Satellite
5. Meteorites

The sun is at the centre of the solar system. the sun is the star, a ball of hot and glowing gas. It does not have any solid par. All objects in our solar system depend on the sun. The sun is the only star in our solar system. It looks bigger than other stars, this is because it is closer than other stars. But in fact, the sun is very small compared to other giant stars.

The sun is made up of 75% of hydrogen, 23% of helium and 2% of other elements. The mass of the sun is about 330,000 times greater than the mass of the earth. The diameter of the sun is about 1.4 million kilometers. The surface temperature of the sun is around 6000 oC while at the centre of the sun temperature is about 14,000,000 oC. The surface of the sun is called photosphere. The sun is the main source of energy and light in planets. with ought the sun no light on the earth, no energy no life.

As we know that sun is a source of all energy and light on the planets. This sun's energy is what called solar energy. There fore, solar energy is energy produced from the sun. This energy is originated from the core of the sun where the nuclear reaction is done to produce heat and energy.

In our day to day activities, we need solar energy for various uses. For example:-
1. We use solar energy for drying our clothes after washing.
2. We need solar energy to dry our crops on the farm and after harvesting.
3. Plants need solar energy to produce their food by the process called photosynthesis.
4. We get vitamin D from solar energy. This vitamin is very essential for our bones
5. In our house, we use solar energy for cooking and for lighting our house. We use electricity made from solar energy by using a solar panel. A solar panel is an instrument used to convert solar energy into electrical energy.
6. Solar energy is very essential to the formation of rainfall.
7. We get heat to warm our bodies from solar energy.

Download kitabu hiki hapa