PART THREE: THE BIOLOGY LABORATORY

PART THREE: THE BIOLOGY LABORATORY
DESCRIPTION OF BIOLOGY LABORATORY
A Biology laboratory this is a special room or building where scientific experiments, analyses and research concerned biological experiments are carried out.
The Biology laboratory must have the following features/characteristics:-
i.It must have large windows and big space to allow enough air and light for better ventilation and visibility respectively.
ii.It must have shelves for keeping chemicals, specimens, apparatus and models.
iii.It must have working benches for sitting during conducting experiments.
iv.It must have an emergence door for escape in a room, in case of danger occurs.
v.It must have preparation room for preparing chemicals and specimens before conducting actual experiment.
vi.It must have supply of gas, electricity and water for easy conducting experiments that involves the use of those things.



LABORATORY RULES OR SAFETY REGULATIONS
The following are the laboratory rules in a Biology laboratory:-
i.Don’t enter in the laboratory without permission from the teacher or laboratory technician.
ii.Don’t eat or drink anything in the laboratory.
iii.Don’t play or run unnecessarily in the laboratory.
iv.Don’t use chemicals or handle apparatus or specimens without instruction from the teacher or laboratory technician.
v.Don’t smell substances, especially chemicals or gases directly in the laboratory.
vi.Don’t use laboratory apparatus for eating or drinking.
vii.Don’t point the open end of the test tube to your fellow or yourself when heating solution.
viii.Remember to label chemicals and specimens so as to avoid confusion.
ix.Remember to turn off water and gas taps after use.
x.Remember to clean the apparatus and benches after the experiment.
xi.Remember to return the apparatus, chemicals, models and specimens to their normal position after use.
xii.Remember to wash your hands with soap after the experiment.
xiii.Always keep flammable substances away from flames.

THE COMMON APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENTS IN A BIOLOGY LABORATORY
Apparatus this is the technical equipment or machinery needed for a particular activity or purpose.
Equipment this is the necessary items for a particular purpose.
The following are the common apparatus and equipment in a Biology laboratory:-
Microscope; this is an instrument used for viewing objects which are too small to be seen by ournaked eyes. Picture of microscope
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Hand lens; this is a small device used to magnify an object. It consists of a lens made of a piece of glass or plastic.
Picture of hand lens
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Dissecting/dissection kits; these are used to dissect frogs, fetal pigs and many other preserved animals. It contains all necessary tools to perform complete dissection.
Picture of dissecting kits
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Dissecting trays/needle; this is a long, 6” needle inserted into a small, wooden handle. It used to tease and separate specimens, pin body parts, and explore dissected animals.
Picture of dissecting trays
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Mortar and pestle; this is the equipment used to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder.
Picture of mortar and pestle
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Test tube; this is a small tube shaped container made from glass.
Picture of test tube
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Test tube ranks; these are pieces of equipment that are used to hold upright multiple test tubes at the same time.
Picture of test tube ranks
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Test tube holder; this is an equipment used for holding a test tube in place when the test tube is hot or should not be touched.
Picture of test tube holder
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Thermometer; this is an instrument used for measuring temperature of substances.
Picture of thermometer
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Bunsen burner; this is a small device that burns gas to produce a flame, used to heat things in scientific work and experiment.
Picture of Bunsen burner
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Measuring/graduated/mixing cylinder; this is an instrument used to measure the volume of a liquid.
Picture of measuring cylinder
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Specimen bottle; this is a bottle for holding urine specimens.
Picture of specimen bottle
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Oven; this is a thermally insulated chamber used for heating, baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking.
Picture of oven
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A pair of scissors; these are small tool consisting of two sharp blades joined together, used for cutting things such as paper, cloth, or hair.
Picture of scissor
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A funnel; this is an object with a wide, circular top and a narrow short tube at the bottom, which used to pour liquids into container which has a small opening, for example bottle.
Picture of funnel
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Beaker; this is a glass container with a flat bottom, that used to hold liquids.
Picture of beaker
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Forceps; this is an instrument with a pair of pincers or tweezers, used in a laboratory or surgery for grasping or holding.
Picture of forceps
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A microscope slide; this is a thin flat piece of glass, used to hold objects for examination under a microscope.
Picture of microscopic slide
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Dropper; this is a small tube with a rubber container at one end that is filled with air and allows liquid to be given out in separate drops.
Picture of dropper
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Spatula; this is a flat thin implement, used especially for separating or mixing soft substances, scooping, or lifting.
Picture of spatula
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Beam balance; this is a device for measuring the weight of something by putting it into a small dish that hangs from one end of a straight bar and balancing it with weights at the other end.
Picture of beam balance
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A glass/stirring/stir rod; this is a piece of laboratory equipment used to mix chemicals and liquids for laboratory purposes.
Picture of glass rod
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Scalpel/lancet/hobby knife; this is a small and extremely sharp bladed instrument used for anatomical dissection, podiatry and various arts and crafts.
Picture of scalpel
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Stopwatch; this is a special watch, which is used to record time during conducting experiment involves time recording.
Picture of stopwatch
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The following are some of the common Chemicals used in the Biology Laboratory:-
i.Iodine solution.
ii.Benedict’s solution.
iii.Sodium hydroxide.
iv.Sodium bicarbonate.
v.Potassium permanganate.
vi.Calcium hydroxide.
vii.Cobalt chloride.
viii.Hydrochloric acid.
ix.Ethane/alcohol.
x.Stains such as carmine red, methylene blue, etc.
xi.Copper II sulphate.
xii.Sudan III solution.