PART ONE: BASIC CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGIES OF BIOLOGY
The term ‘BIOLOGY’ is derived from the two Greek words such as “bios” which means life and “logia” which means study of.
Biology This is the branch of science which deals with the study of living and non living things. Living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Biologist is a person who studies Biology.
Biology recognizes that:-
i.Cell as the basic unit of life.
ii.Genes as the basic unit of heredity.
iii.Evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species.
BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY
The following are the three main branches of Biology:-
i.Botany this is the branch of Biology which deals with the study of plants including their physiology, structure, genetics, ecology, distribution, classification, and economic importance. Botanist is a person who studies about plants ‘characteristic features.
ii.Zoology this is the branch of Biology which deals with the study of animals including their classification, physiology, development, evolution and behavior. Zoologist is a person who studies about animals’ characteristic features.
iii.Microbiology this is the branch of biology which deals with the study of microscopic organisms/microorganisms and their interactions with other living things.
The following are sub-branches of microbiology:-
i.Bacteriology is the study of bacteria.
ii.Mycology is the study of fungi.
iii.Parasitology is the study of parasites and parasitism.
iv.Virology is the study of viruses.
i.Science; this is the intellectual and practical activity which involve the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.
ii.Life; This is the state of being existing that distinguishes animals, plants and microorganisms from inorganic matter, such as water, rocks, stones, etc.
iii.Living things/organisms; this are individuals that display the key characteristics of life including animals, plants and microorganisms.
iv.Non-living things/non- living organisms; this are things which they can’t display the key characteristics of life including water, stones, rocks, etc.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS
The following are the characteristics/features of living things/organisms:-
i.Growth; this is the process of increasing in physical size. For example, the upward growth of plants and animals.
ii.Nutrition/Feeding; this is the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.
iii.Movement; this is an act of changing physical location or position.
iv.Reproduction; this is the process by which living things produce new individuals of their own kind.
v.Excretion; this is the process of removing metabolic waste products from the body of living organisms. These metabolic wastes products include urea, ammonia, carbon dioxide, water/sweat, etc.
vi.Irritability/Sensitivity; this is the ability of an organism to respond to a stimulus/stimuli. For example, a fly landing on your skin.
vii.Respiration; this is the process in which food substances are broken down to release energy in the body of an organism.
THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING BIOLOGY
The following are the importance of studying biology in our everyday life situation:-
i.It helps us to understand our environment better and principles of conserving it.
ii.It helps to improve our health because in Biology there are various diseases which have been studied and the ways to avoid those diseases.
iii.It helps to avoid ourselves from magical beliefs, superstitions and other traditional taboos.
iv.It helps to know various organisms with their behaviors.
v.It helps to understand on how living organisms are classified to their different rank such as kingdom to species.
vi.It helps to overcome various obstacles caused by living organisms.
vii.It helps to understand ourselves better since we are living things.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES WITH OTHER RELATED FIELDS
There are various field which are related to the Biological science in various aspects, among those fields include Agriculture, Forestry, Medicine, Pharmacy, Nutrition, etc.
i.Agriculture; this is the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products. Agriculture uses knowledge of Biology to improve plant and animal breeding. Crop, animal diseases and pests can only be overcome by applying biological knowledge.
ii.Forestry; this is the science or practice of planting, managing and caring forest resources for human benefit. Forest is a large area of land covered with trees. Use of Biological control to combat tree pests applies Biological principles and knowledge. Climate, soil and water determine the type of plants to be grown which entirely applies Biological knowledge.
iii.Medicine; this is the science or practice of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Biological knowledge helps to offer education to the patients on how to prevent themselves from the diseases. For example, purifying drinking water, vaccination against polio, measles and other diseases.
iv.Pharmacy; this is the profession concerned with the preparation, distribution and use of drugs. Biological knowledge helps to know the effects of drugs on living things (Pharmacology) and possible remedies/cure to be taken.
v.Nutrition; this is the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth. Food provides substances that the body needs to build and repair its tissues and to regulate its organs and systems. Biological knowledge helps to identify the type of food required by an organism based on its quantity and quality.